COQOS Hypervisor SDK enables the convergence of several functionalities on a single System-on-Chip (SoC) while providing freedom from interference between systems of different criticality (assigned to different ASIL levels such as QM, A, B,). The core technology of COQOS Hypervisor SDK is the hypervisor. The hypervisor makes it possible to run several guest Operating Systems (including Linux, Android, AUTOSAR or other operating systems) in separated virtual machines. A typical use case is the safe cockpit controller that runs an instrument cluster and an in-vehicle infotainment system simultaneously, on a single processor.
Hypervisor, specified to needs of automotive devices
OpenSynergy has developed a hypervisor – the COQOS Hypervisor. It runs directly on the SoC application cores (at the highest privilege level) and creates several virtual machines (VMs). Each VM is isolated from the others and this separation (ISO 26262 calls it “freedom from interference”) supports some of the key integration requirements. The hypervisor supports the controlled interaction between the VMs and devices on the SoC and communication between the VMs. Most of the new SoCs have integrated hardware virtualization extensions on the application cores. These extensions make it possible to run a hypervisor with hardly any measurable performance overhead and without the need to change the operating systems running in the VMs (also called the “guest operating systems”).
The COQOS Hypervisor targets the specific needs of automotive devices such as a cockpit controller. COQOS Hypervisor is highly configurable so that customers can for example
It is minimalistic in its design and therefore is small, fast and certifiable.
Providing scalability and flexibility
COQOS Hypervisor SDK can scale across various applications. It can run on compact micro-processors as well as high-performance multi-core processors. It can be used for small, simple systems with just a few virtual machines (VMs).
At the same time, it is also perfect for complex infotainment systems with several guest operating systems, each running in its own virtual machine.
Using hardware more efficiently
The assignment of VMs to cores in a multi-core processor is highly flexible. Several VMs can access one core, or, vice versa, one VM can tap into the computing power of several cores. Due to the minimalistic Type-1 Hypervisor, it takes maximal advantage of hardware virtualization extensions.
Having separate VMs for isolated functions, COQOS Hypervisor SDK provides the benefit that functional disruptions cannot affect systems in other VMs. This architecture simplifies the challenge of high functional safety. The hypervisor is designed from the ground up for supporting applications with high requirements in terms of safety and security.
A configurable system supervisor (watchdog) in a separate VM can monitor the behavior of specific applications and intervene if the system does not respond properly.
Guest operating systems run independently of each other on the software VM in COQOS Hypervisor SDK. In this way, the partitioning functions as a firewall, offering protection from outside attacks.
Integrating AUTOSAR seamlessly
COQOS Hypervisor SDK contains a CAN Gateway which is integrated in a VM, that
• Enables seamless integration of the ECU running COQOS Hypervisor SDK into the in-vehicle network
• Offers the fastest option for installing standard AUTOSAR-compliant automotive services such as diagnostics
• Makes it possible to use AUTOSAR software components that implement real-time applications
Saving time and money
Using open source software makes it possible to reuse software systems from the field of consumer electronics. This reduces R&D costs and shortens the time required for development.
The COQOS hypervisor
Target processor architectures
The hypervisor creates virtual machines (VMs):
Android and Linux
COQOS SDK supports the following guest
The CAN Gateway is a minimalistic AUTOSAR stack, that contains:
COQOS SDK includes a fast-boot loader and a modular-boot mechanism, which allows VMs to load and start sequentially.
Shared Graphics and GPU
Several VMs with graphic-intensive applications fulfilling different requirements on safety and real-time Performance, can share one display surface (Shared Graphics) and use the same Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) and display hardware concurrently (Shared GPU).
Many important use cases require that a single hardware resource is shared among multiple VMs. OpenSynergy’s approach enables graphical output of VMs that run on top of a hypervisor with different requirements in terms of safety and real time performance on one or multiple displays.
TÜV-Süd has confirmed that the COQOS Hypervisor as part of the COQOS Hypervisor SDK meets the requirements of ISO 26262 up to ASIL-B and has issued an associated Technical Report.
Inter-X Communication Framework (IXCF)
IXCF transfers data between VMs running multi-purpose or real time operating systems. IXCF consist of:
A configurable watchdog (contained in a separate VM) can observe the behavior of specific applications and take action when the system does not perform correctly.